An interventional radiology procedure can deliver the effective dose equivalent to 250-3,500 chest X-rays (using head/neck angiography to TIPS placements as comparisons).

Research links brain tumors, both benign and malignant, to low-level radiation exposure. For interventionalists who develop brain tumors, 85% of tumors originated on the left side of the brain.

Radiation protection is a serious issue for vascular surgeons because most complex endovascular procedures are delivering measurable radiation to the eyes. The analysis of endovascular procedures estimated that the European threshold of 20 mSv could be reached with <23 hours (1,404 minutes) of fluoroscopy.

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