An interventional radiology procedure can deliver the effective dose equivalent to 250-3,500 chest X-rays (using head/neck angiography to TIPS placements as comparisons).

Research links brain tumors, both benign and malignant, to low-level radiation exposure. For interventionalists who develop brain tumors, 85% of tumors originated on the left side of the brain.

Radiation protection is a serious issue for vascular surgeons because most complex endovascular procedures are delivering measurable radiation to the eyes. The estimated fluoroscopy time to reach a radiation threshold of 20 mSv/y to the eyes was <23 hours (1,404 minutes).

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